Native Peoples
Native Peoples - Wrapup
/ Task

Virginia's Native American Tribes
Middle
Students would work in teams to select a specific Native American tribe from Virginia history to research. These Native Americans were hunters, grew crops, engaged in trading, and used the geography to their advantage. We would locate all the primary and secondary source documents possible and then illustrate the different roles within this culture and society. What were they like politically? Who determined the Chief? What was their structure like? Was there a hierarchy? What were the different roles within this society? Who held those roles and why?
Teacher
Elementary
The discussion on Native Americans will be addressed more in depth to include the pros and cons of being a Native American living on the land that they claimed first. This discussion will include the struggles of choosing to fight with the Americans during war time to segregation and being denied rights because of the color of your skin.
Historical Justice for Virginia's Native Peoples
Elementary
As classroom historians, it is important to consider bias and due to the lack of written records by Virginia's Native Peoples it is important to be skeptical of the narratives we were taught and continue to teach to our children. In my classroom, I hope to always encourage students to delve deeper and not just accept the narrative as it appears. I will ask the students to contemplate where they can find sources of information that are not Anglo-centric.
Native Peoples
Elementary
In Kindergarten, it is vital to express the importance Native Americans role in settlers' survival. They knew the land better and its use. They were the ideal example of a community and how everyone works together with a mutual respect for each others roles regardless of gender specific roles. Outside tribes worked together as one with a mutual respect for one another's position and stance. It is important to teach students how these roles and communities worked together for a greater purpose.
Understanding Native Virginians
Elementary
I will have students share what they know and any notions they have about Native Virginians. Then, I will ask students to share what they believe the settlers’ first impressions of the Native Virginians may have been, and any perceptions regarding their social structure that settlers’ may have had based on their encounters.

Students will break into small groups and receive several diary excerpts from Jamestown settlers. Students will read the excerpts and examine Euro-American perceptions of Native Virginians, then be asked to discuss how accurate or inaccurate they think the Euro-American descriptions were.

Given the absence of native documents, I will ask students to brainstorm ways historians can learn about native cultures.

Students will then have the chance to view several replica objects or images of things common to Native Virginian culture: moccasins, pottery, tools, weapons, wigwams, longhouses, clothing, and beaded jewelry. Students will analyze and discuss what these items and pictures reveal about Native Virginians and compare their findings with the Euro-American viewpoints.
Native Virginians: A Deeper Inquiry
High
I would have my students take surveys to identify if any of them where aware if they had any Native American Ancestors then follow with a class discusssion.
American Indians
Elementary
After learning about native Americans, I know that my kindergarteners love to see first hand, so I would love to bring in artifacts that the children can see and handle. These artifacts may include objects such as moccasins, corn, beads, stone axes (plastic variety).
Classroom Teacher
Elementary
I think it is important to provide students with a perspective that highlights and celebrates the many impressive aspects of Native American society, when juxtaposed to the culture of the invading European colonists. We all know that for generations, education in this country has been geared toward an ethnocentric, xenophobic, pro-white anglo-saxon narrative designed to be reductive and diminishing toward native cultures. In more recent years, this has improved in many areas around the country, and the perspective of Native groups and primitive and unsophisticated has softened, but I feel we have not gone far enough. In my classroom, I would want to encourage discussions about societal norms among native groups that more accurately reflect the values of today's society than that of the European groups. Matriarchal lineages, and the prevalence of women in positions of leadership is something I would focus on in particular. Through morning meetings or socratic seminars which examine primary source texts, I would encourage discussion on the qualities of these different cultures.
Teacher
Elementary
In second grade, we teach a great deal about Native Americans. Three tribes in particular. Photographs, maps, videos and artifacts are a great way for students to learn and observe the Native American's way of life. Stories about Indians also help students visualize how life may have looked back then.
Using clay, or other resources, we have constructed models of the longhouse and teepee. Students have been on field trips to museums where they have generated clay pots and seen the types of clothing the Native Americans made from animal skins.
Mod 3 Croteau
Middle
This module has inspired me to do less direct instruction and to facilitate some sell-discovery among my students. As they know from science, your first hypothesis isn't necessarily the same one you end with. This will allow them ownership of their learning. There was a set of guiding questions within this module that I think are going to be very valuable in the execution of these discoveries.
• What is it?
• Where is it now and how did it get there?
• When was it created?
• What was the object’s function (or functions)? Was it unique?
• Who made, owned, or used the object?
The First Virginians
Middle
Being a Social Studies teacher in Virginia, I have often introduced students to the Native Americans through artifacts. The students are able to physically hold actual tools (arrow heads/scrapers/axe/hoes) as well as view other artifacts online. The students are asked if they can identify what the artifact was used for and how it shaped the lives of the Native Americans.
One piece of information that I was not 100% fully aware of was the assigning of Native Americans as "colored" and that their were only two races in Virginia, colored or white. With todays ever evolving cultural society, I think it is important to have students understand how Native Americans in Virginia struggled to keep their cultural identity over the centuries and the impact it continues to have on them today.
What was the Racial Integrity Act?
High
I believe that in the inclusion of the Racial Integrity Act of 1924 should be included in any coverage of VA history most importantly at the High School level. The stripping of Virginia's Indian population of their identity in this act had long lastly and traumatic repercussions and is often overlooked. I don'ts currently teach VA history but if I did I would like to have representatives from VA's tribal groups to come in and speech with my class about the struggles of Virginia's Indian groups for recognition and the damage done by that act.
Native American Influence
High
Spending time having students discover and explore Native Virginian materials would be beneficial to allow students understand that vast contribution and influence Native Americans had on shaping this country. Its important to also acknowledge the suffering and sacrifice these Native peoples experienced too. I think having the students do some sort of interactive web quest and presentation on a time period of Native contribution, culture and expulsion would be beneficial for them to understand from a differing perspective. I personally am fascinated by the use of eugenics on the Native Americans.
Teaching About Native Peoples
Elementary
I will be sure to focus a lot more on finding very powerful primary resources for my students to analyze in the hopes to increase their critical thinking and deepen their understanding of how the Natives lived and interacted with the land, the people and with each other.
KeriD -Teacher
Elementary
The use of primary sources would be powerful especially when teaching the Native American unit because it will help students realize Virginia had and has native peoples and how they really did live unlike the Indian caricatures. Also, primary give a more accurate depiction of the advanced native communities.
Teacher
Elementary
Students can look at primary sources and interpret their findings. Once complete, show them points of view. Who created the artifact and for what purpose? Afterwards, have the students delve in again and interpret their findings.
Early Virginia Native Homes
Elementary
Students would be divided into groups. Each group would be assigned a Native American Language Group. Students would research the structure and style of homes they built and lived in. They would determine why a certain structure was preferred by their language group and for what purposes it best served. Students would then build a model of the Virginia Indian home of the language group they researched. Students would write an essay describing the home, the materials used and for what purposed it served. Students would be encouraged to explore the cultural, environmental and technological developments used by the natives in building their homes and what impact it had in those areas. Finally, groups would present their projects, research and ponderings to the ideas presented.
Cartwright - Classroom Connections
High
I would have students examine maps and accounts from Natives and Europeans to help students understand their interactions. I would focus on the movement of Indian Tribes as they were pushed off their lands through maps, personal accounts, and treaties. Students could also look at different artifacts, pictures, and reproduction of Native life to understand their culture, technology, and social interactions. When looking at European views of the Natives I would guide my students to identifying the author's bias towards the Natives. I think its important for students to understand that both sides would present a biased view of the other, with both seeing the other as the aggressor in many cases.
Is the Story of Native People in Virginia True?
Elementary
Help students answer the question, Is the story of native people in Virginia true? by exploring primary sources and answering the following secondary questions:
How does the oral history and language of Native peoples in Virginia represent their culture?
What evidence have archaeologists uncovered at Werowocomoco and Jamestown to give us a better picture of what life was like for tribes in the past?
How are Native peoples of Virginia connected to the land?
Who determines how history is passed down (Who is the narrator?)

Students will work in small groups or pairs to explore primary sources such as Native American Podcasts, Wherowomocomoco Site, Native American Artifacts, etc. The students will complete some of the following activities: Participate in a group discussion and share their answers in an oral fashion., Complete a graphic organizer detailing information about artifacts and photos from VA tribes (pre-contact), Annotate a map of places and natural resources the native peoples of Virginia stewarded and used pre-contact, Make a claim about how the history of native peoples of Virginia passed down and write questions to ask a member of one of the Virginia tribes.

























Native People
Middle
I love learning about the Native American culture and it's impact on Virginia. In my Civics curriculum, I could introduce their way of life from a governing perspective. We could look at customs and tribal leaders to see how they lead their tribes. If I still taught US History, I would spend more time looking at how these cultures impacted the settlements of Virginia from both Native and English perspectives. Students need to understand the importance of both sides of the story to fully appreciate Native American cultures.
Native People of VA
Middle
Help the students to understand the people of the land here before the settlers. Use artifacts as primary resources and secondary resources top have students draw similarities and differences on how the history of the VA indian was recorded and draw conclusions about what they see as facts verses fictional or created interpretations.
Native American Names
Elementary
Using our 4 classroom walls, we will label North, South, East, and West. Using maps, websites, etc. will investigate the many Indian names around Richmond. ( There are many schools, landmarks, streets, etc. that bear the names of the original inhabitants of our state.) We will then investigate where that tribe was located in VA (in relation to Richmond as the center) and then place the name with the appropriate direction.
Native American Names
Elementary
Using our 4 classroom walls, we will label North, South, East, and West. Using maps, websites, etc. will investigate the many Indian names around Richmond. ( There are many schools, landmarks, streets, etc. that bear the names of the original inhabitants of our state.) We will then investigate where that tribe was located in VA (in relation to Richmond as the center) and then place the name with the appropriate direction.
Artifacts are Everything
Elementary
Presenting my students with as many artifacts as possible is the most important tool for them to learn and understand a culture that was almost completely wiped out. However, I also need to articulate to the students that although the tools, homes, and other artifacts presented to them seem simple or primitive, the Native Tribes of Virginia had an advanced political system as well as unique cultural differences between the language groups.
In the classroom - 4th grade
Elementary
Throughout this module, I kept coming back to the idea of "perspective," and how that can be very challenging for my gifted students. It is easy for us, and our students, to just take information presented at face value, and not evaluate or question it. I would definitely use the idea of perspective, and challenge my students to take on different roles and present to one another how different artifacts and resources could be seen based on the perspective it is evaluated from.
Teaching about Native Peoples
Elementary
I learned so much I did not know in this module. When teaching about Virginia's Indians in the future, I will use many more primary resources, including artifacts and written accounts. The artist renditions and maps would be very useful in teaching about conflicts between the settlers and Indians.
The Racial integrity Act
  • Middle
  • High
First of all, I live and teach in Amherst County, the home of the Monacan nation. Many students from this area have some sort of connection with the Native Virginians and it's interesting to find new connections from them. Several times a year I pull in information from this tribe and its interactions in our area, they even have a yearly Powwow ceremony which we sometimes have a field trip to see. I have even talked about the Bear Mountain Indian School.

I have always attempted to give focus to the continuous theme of black, colored, and Native American history of Virginia. It is very important to recognize the contributions ALL Virginians have made to this state and the nation. Especially now, in 2020, when there is a heightened focus in the media and our personal lives around these events. My 'white' students are always shocked by the realization that the Racial Integrity Act included the 'one drop rule' where anyone with 'one drop' of non-white blood would be considered part of the colored race and immediately classified as a second class citizen without most privileges (even an education). This surprises them because many know they have some Native American blood in their family tree somewhere. It leads into some good classroom discussions. I will continue efforts to give positive focus on these great influences in our history.
ReHumanizing the Indian Culture and Importance of their Role in our History
Elementary
I feel sometimes our History bulldozes over the importance of the Native Americans. We talk about how dependent they were on their natural resources, and how we traded with them but we don't talk about how truly valuable they were to our survival. I will discuss with students how important perspectives are. While our culture thought of Indians as savages for so long but in all honestly who was truly unskilled in this new world? The Native Americans were years ahead of us in terms of equality, value and virtue. We should really be applauding and commending their skills, for without them we would not have survived Jamestown, nor even be here today.
Native Peoples- Classroom Connections
Pre-K
If it would be possible to obtain Native Peoples relics from the past (farming tools, moccasins etc.) that I could share in a circle time with the students. Items that they could actually touch and feel. I would have a couple members of a local Native tribe come in to speak to the students about their past way of life, and the comparisons to their present way of life. Native peoples foods would be a fun and tactile way to engage the students; demonstrating preparation, and having them eat the food at the end. Colorful pictures to color representing native history in Virginia, and afterwards being able to hang them up to view. A children's beadwork kit could be incorporated, one where they would put beads together based on the meaning it had to them. Thus connecting the Native people had a meaning for their beadwork. During a recess trip outside the students could be asked to find objects on the ground, or observe nature and come up with ideas on what Native people might do with the natural resources. A field trip to a museum with good Native Peoples resources would be great.
Native Virginians
High
I think to start I really like the idea of introducing Native Americans specifically as Native Virginians. I also want to introduce the idea that European leaders and Native Virginian leaders were both angling for power over one another. I want to spend more time talking about the relationship between Native Americans and Europeans (both good and bad). I also plan to carry Native Americans and their story through the year and examining their roles specifically within wars, civil rights, and desegregation.
Native Virginians
High
I think to start I really like the idea of introducing Native Americans specifically as Native Virginians. I also want to introduce the idea that European leaders and Native Virginian leaders were both angling for power over one another. I want to spend more time talking about the relationship between Native Americans and Europeans (both good and bad). I also plan to carry Native Americans and their story through the year and examining their roles specifically within wars, civil rights, and desegregation.
Native Virginian COntributions
Elementary
As we go through the different eras and major events in the development of Virginia, we will be highlighting the importance of Native Virginians. We will be talking about how they have been in Virginia longer than historians initially realized, about how they have contributed to language, farming, and the defense of Virginia. We will talk about what was put in place to wipe them out - both in the early years of European settlement and in more recent times, and how many have persevered and now recognized. This needs to woven into all of units of study of Virginia history, since without the Native Virginians the Europeans wouldn't have survived in the first place.
Holly Natalie
High
There are a number of applications I will apply to my classroom that involve Native Peoples in Virginia. First, I would have students create a timeline of the different interactions that English settlers had with the Powhatan and other tribes in Virginia. In the timeline, I would also have students include the different leaders of Virginia like John Smith and De La Warr as well as the impact the marriage between Pocahontas and John Rolfe had on the conflict between English settlers and Native Americans. Next, I would have students examine the 1924 Virginia Racial Integrity Act and apply some of this law to later controversies in Virginia related to civil rights like the Southern reaction to Brown v. Board of Education. To accomplish this I would have students compare schools used by African Americans and Native Americans related to white schools within the same geographic area. This would be accomplished by examining primary sources. Lastly, I would have students examine and then write a reflection on the Supreme Court overturning the 1924 Racial Integrity Act as unconstitutional in 1967. In their reflection, students would also comment on how this is related to the Eugenic controversy in Virginia. This is important because it is a key aspect of the new USVA 2015 History standards and would provide some context fore students related to this topic, which most students probably have experienced little exposure prior to 11th grade.
Native Virginians
Elementary
We learn about the Powhatan tribe. It's difficult to change their ideas about Pocahontas or Natives in general. Using the artifacts and drawing, they can see a more accurate version of her and her life. They are amazed at how they managed to be so intelligent without modern advances. I think more needs to be taught about the poor treatment of the tribes throughout history and even today.
Teacher of English
High
I teach American Literature, and much of American Literature begins with the signing of the Declaration of Independence. I think by studying the Native Peoples of Virginia students can gain understanding of colonists relationships with what they deemed "the other" and gain access to primary source documents to analyze that pulls back the curtain on how far back American identity really goes.
4th grade teacher
Elementary
There is so much to learn from the Native People in Virginia. I want my students to gain an understanding and an appreciation of how much we have learned from them. We will visit a museum virtually; read and create artwork.
Where in Virginia are We?
Elementary
This is not really my idea. I heard it at a conference this summer. I intend to use it this coming year. The Virginia Indians have a legend about why there are so many Indian tribes. (You can google Powhatan legends.) If you share the story and look at a map where different tribes are located, it gives you an idea of how there came to be so many different groups. At the very least it allows a discussion to start about the geographic features found in Virginia and how it affected people settling in different areas.
Native Peoples in Virginia
Elementary
I would like to apply what I’ve learned about Native Peoples in Virginia by setting up my classroom as a museum. Each student is given a primary or secondary resource. Using the SCIM method they respond and share about their resource. They then use their source to create a display for our classroom Natives of Virginia Museum. This museum could then also be on display for other classrooms to visit.
Art, Agriculture, Artifacts, and beyond
Elementary
There is so much to learn about Native Virginians, and many ways to learn: by reading/listening to/interviewing, and analyzing artifacts from, various tribes in Virginia today and by corroborating information from drawings/art by John White and others with descriptions from primary source documents. I think research is key in students' learning about Native Peoples in VA, because different accounts and historians disagree with each other. For example, little is known yet lots is speculated about Pocahontas. For elementary schoolers, having familiarity with this important figure may be a good starting place for research and discussion.
Virginia's Native People
Elementary
Including as much about the Native Peoples of Virginia into the early historical accounts is important to understand the influence and contribution this culture had and continues to have. I hope to include the study of Native artifacts and reproductions to help students understand more about their early culture. I want to encourage students to look more closely at biases that were present from the European narrative. I plan to include information about their contributions in later historical events such as the Revolutionary War and the Civil War. I want to show students that the Native culture has helped to shape our state and continues to be an important part of Virginia.
Native Peoples (Classroom Connection)
Elementary
I would display a Native picture or artifact. The students would get in groups and discuss what they think they know about the picture/artifact as their hypothesis. Then we would go through materials and/or watch videos explaining the history behind the artifact. As a whole class we would discuss what we had learned and how our thoughts changed about the artifact. This is based on how this class is set up. I believe it would be a great way to allow our students to discover historical facts rather than reading them from a book or getting lectured at.
Native People in Virginia
Pre-K
When talking about the Pilgrims settling in Virginia, the children will learn about the Woodland Indians and their contribution to the success of the Pilgrims. Showing pictures of actual objects or replicas of objects used by the Native People can help peak student interest in Native life.
Virginia's Native Americans
High
I would give students news articles from present events and let students see how bias is written into a story. I would then find an event that students can write from different perspectives to understand how the history of Native Americans was not written by them.
Virginia Native Peoples Art
Elementary
Students will create a simulated animal hide work of art. They will use brown paper bags as a substitute for animal hide. On their paper bag material, the students will draw basic native Virginian symbols. The students will also examine and use different types of primitive art materials. These materials would have been available to the native Virginians. These materials are: berry juice, crushed earth pigment, water, red clay, and crushed leaves.
Application of Native Peoples in Virginia
High
I teach special education students. I think that projects where the student can hold and look at an artifact then explain what it can tell us about the time and people that made or used the artifact would be helpful in getting them to understand the different cultures. I can have each of them present on artifacts from different tribes, that way they can teach each other about the societies as well.
What if?
High
As a cIass, we would look at the contact between the Powhatan people and the English discussing how they interacted/ got along. Then as a class we would brain storm how the English experience would have been if the land was uninhabited, if the Native Virginians had not been here.
Native Peoples of Virginia
Elementary
As a librarian, I would like to find books about the Native Peoples of Virginia to include in our school library. In teaching classes, the use of various drawings/photographs could be used to encourage discussion about what may or may not be true in history, depending on whose perspective is being shared.
Native Americans
Middle
The first application of what I have learned is to remind students that a lot of what they have previously learned about Native Americans probably came from the perspective of Europeans. I would present students with the population numbers from the Protohistoric period and compare with the Native population of today and have students hypothesize why there is a small fraction of the population remaining. I would then present students with artifacts to help them begin to delve deeper into researching the impacts that Native people had on this region/state. When students begin to realize the influence that Native people had, I would present them with the Racial Integrity Act of 1924 and ask students if this was a fair law to impose. Because I teach Civics, I would incorporate learning about Judicial Review when discussing how eventually the law was overturned in 1967 and further the discussion with students in regards to how they feel the injustices that Native people faced has impacted the remaining population today.
Native Peoples Teaching Applications
Middle
With the exception of the unit on Westward Expansion, Native Americans do not have a larger presence in the USII curriculum. However, one standard is that Native Americans were granted citizenship in 1924. It could be interesting to invite students to wonder why this took place when it did. Individual students could brainstorm questions related to the statement “Native Americans were granted Citizenship in 1924.” As a class, we could brainstorm events that took place near this time that might have influenced Congress’s decision. We could then look at the 1924 Virginia Racial Integrity Act. It could be interesting to discuss how 1924 was a year of both advances and setbacks for Native Americans. Students could engage in a debate of whether this year brought more benefits or disadvantages to Virginia Native Americans. It could also be interesting to look at the 1920s in terms of racial progress and racial backsteps for both Native Americans and African Americans in Virginians.
Native Peoples of Virginia Compared to Those in Quebec
High
For students of French to learn about French-speaking countries and regions, it is important that they be able to make connections. Typically, we think about these connections with regard to culture, but the same applies with regard to history. In French class, I would ask students to compare what they know of Virginian history with that of Quebec, New France. There, the alliance of the French settlers with the Huron (against the Iroquois) could be compared with the relationship of Virginian settlers with Powhatan's Algonquins. In what ways did the relationships of the settlers with the respective Native Peoples impact the development of the local cultures, and how is that reflected in today's society?
Third Grade Teacher
Elementary
Given the information that has been presented, it is imperative to provide and use information that is derived from the Native Americans themselves and not from the European perspective. I may research a particular event, perhaps that of schooling, and get information from the Native Americans and from the Europeans and compare and contrast their perspective. This would be a great way to discuss "perspective" and what that term means. It would support how different people see the same event in different ways, based on their experiences. Even withing the Native American culture, the woman's perspective will be different from the man's perspective. We all see things differently, as we do today in our culture. I might project a picture or scene and have students discuss what they feel is going on. They will be able to hear the different responses.
Native Peoples
Elementary
The value of using primary resources is evident. Students will feel a stronger connection to the lesson if they are exposed to more authentic learning tools. I will definitely include some artifacts and hands-on learning opportunities to peak my students' interest as I introduce our Virginia Studies Native American/Early Settlers unit. I would also like to include a cross-curricular writing assignment where students choose a point of view (Native American vs. Settler) and write their perspective of daily life and the challenges they face. This would occur later in our unit after all SOLs have been presented and students have a stronger understanding of this era in history.
Indian Culture through Artifacts
Elementary
I used this lesson in both Virginia Studies and American History 1. I would show students various Native artifacts such as clovis era arrowheads compared to the "notched arrow head" of later tribes and how that showed an improvement in technology. We would look at different Indian dwellings and discuss all the various living arrangements tribes may have had. We looked a clothing and pottery along with the symbolism that came along with them. We also discussed how women's roles in Native tribes were much different and much more valued than those of their European counterparts. This one lesson was an easy and practical way that allowed students to gain insight to Native culture but also go beyond the basic standards and learn more information about Native culture.
Native Peoples
Elementary
My students are always fascinated by the Native Americans and their way of life. I'm always looking for ways to enhance the small amount of material we are required to teach about the Native Americans because of my students' interest. I would love to present my students with an artifact or the picture of an artifact and see what they say just from observation. Using videos of current day pow-wows and Native American life has also been helpful in having my students understand that a lot of the Native Americans today live similar to other Americans while preserving their traditions and culture. Also, using children's literature about Native Americans and Native American legends and folk tales is a great way to introduce students to Native American unit and have discussions about their beliefs and way of life. Another way to help students understand Native American life from a child's perspective is to have the students play a game or games that Native American children would have played reminding the students that there were only certain resources available at the time (no video games!).
What Happens When Your Side of History Is Not Written Down?
Elementary
Fifth grade students can be divided into small groups. Each group will be provided with a brief (one to two paragraph) European account of some of the early interactions between Native people and settlers. Students will then be asked to imagine and write an account of the same event from the point of view the Native people.

The class will then discuss how historical accounts of events, particularly conflicts, and vary greatly depending on the perspective of the groups involved. Since Native Americans did not have their own written records, students should consider how encounters between two cultures can be very biased.
Exploring the Story Behind Native American Artifacts
High
I believe I could tie in these Native American artifacts into my high school Geography class. I might divide students into groups, and give each group an artifact to examine. I might ask my students to try to determine what area those Native Americans may have lived in based on the materials used, and the type of artifact given (something used for farming, hunting, etc.)
Fourth Grade
Elementary
I really enjoyed the podcasts. I found it interesting to hear from true Native Americans some of the information that has been passed down about their history. I would definitely share the podcasts with my students. I would also show the maps of where the various tribes were originally located and compare them to where the tribes are located now. I would also compare the numbers throughout history and have the students discuss what may have caused the decrease in the numbers.
Virginian Indians: Beyond SOLS
Elementary
I plan on moving beyond the SOLs and teaching a more comprehensive history of VA Indians. Their culture is diverse, homes of the Cherokee differed from Powhatan, a Mississippian burial mound was found in Lee county, and how American Indians celebrate their diverse culture in Virginia today. It is also worth mentioning what happened to the Cherokee is southwest VA during the Indian Removal Act. In addition, I plan on instructing students on the effects of Jim Crow on American Indians through lack of public educational opportunities, encouraged assimilation, and marriage restrictions from the Racial Integrity Act. My hope as an educator is that I tell a comprehensive history of American Indians in Virginia and how their story still continues on today as state recognized tribes.
Native People's in Virginia
Elementary
I think that it is important to expose students to the few documents written on the Native Virginians. I would have the look at how the picture can relate to today. I would have them state one thing that is obvious to them, one thing they think could have happened in the documents, and one thing that the document impacted on our world today. I would also have the Jamestown outreach come to our school to talk about the Virginia Indians. We have had them come to our school before and it was very engaging for my students. I would also like to take my students to Jamestown so they could see how Virginia's Indians lived. I would also have them see the American Revolution Museum at Yorktown. Giving students real life experiences help them step foot into the possibility of how it was in the past. I would have them pick whether they wanted to pretend to be a Virginia Indian or a European and do a project about their background. I would also like to have my students compare and contrast how Virginia Indians lived in the past and how we live now. We would look at specifically at resources available, beliefs, cultures, and traditions. Another idea is when we are learning about the food they used to grow during different seasons is to start up our own garden in our school. This would help not only teach about Virginia Indians and their resources but also help intertwine Science and responsibility. We would also look back at the segregation that happened to the Virginia Indians look at serration thought the years and how it changed. I would have my students write how segregation has changed throughout the years and how they would feel if they had to experience discrimination.
Native Peoples in the Classroom
Elementary
Teaching Virginia's Native Americans is one of my favorite topics to teach. This is a big unit where you could really take advantage of the artifacts to talk about how they lived, how they used their surroundings, how they traveled, and so on.
I would take something such as an arrowhead and talk about why they may have created them and what they used them for. To go along with this, we could talk about their different tools they made and why they might look different from the tools we use today. We would talk about what materials we have now and what materials they had available to them. This goes back to a previous module and well as this one, but it would be neat to look at a map of the land in an Indian's perspective and this could also help us see what materials they had in order to make tools and arrowheads.
Native Peoples of Virginia in the Civics Classroom
Middle
This information and insight gained from these resources could be used in my Civics classroom in two key places. I often start out the course by asking "What makes a person a Citizen of the United States". First we brainstorm, then go through the official definition and requirements to become a citizen. Here I could pose the question "What about Native People? Don't they fit the requirements?" and this could be an excellent discussion. Again, during the Citizenship Unit and the Founding Documents Unit, we could explore the impact of the Bill of Rights, Constitution, Virginia's Racial Integrity Act along with its effects and how it violated the US Constitution.
John Smith and Virginia's Native Americans
Elementary
For my activity, I would divide my fourth grade class into pairs or groups of three and provide them with copies of John Smith's 1612 map. A color printable version can be found online at https://www.historyisfun.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Map-of-Virginia-by-John-Smith-image.pdf. I would give the groups several minutes to closely examine the map before giving them their assignment. After everyone has had the opportunity to study the map, I'd ask the students to form a hypothesis about what they believe John Smith's attitude toward the Native Americans was. They would have to list at least five details from the map that support their hypothesis. I'd imagine many students would state that he had an attitude of respect toward them, due to numerous references on the map to Native American culture. Perhaps some groups would feel he had a disrespectful attitude toward them and that the map listed many locations that he'd want the English to conquer, control, and exploit. Toward the end of the activity, groups would be given the opportunity to share their hypotheses and evidence with the entire class. The activity would be done toward the very beginning of the First Permanent Settlement unit. Students would have prior knowledge about Virginia's Indians, but relatively little knowledge about reasons for an English colony in Virginia.
Natives in Virginia
High
I plan on having my students analyze the relationship between early settlers and natives. Have students review the goals and skills of earliest settlers such as John Smith. What skills, goods, goals did John Smith and the earliest settlers have, compared to Powhatan goods, skills, and goal. Both had a goal of controlling each other. Analyze how this relationship evolves over time with fighting for land, and attempts at peace. Students can compare actual Pocahontas story vs disney story. Finally discuss settlers spreading disease, use of guns, to overpower many native tribes.
Who is a Virginian?
High
What struck me most about this module was the later developments in racial classification and law, that Native Virginians were not legally permitted to identify as "Indian" and were instead classified as "colored" and denied access to equal public education until the 1960s. This information, supported by primary sources of the day, could be used in an comparative study with any other time period regarding legalized discrimination and its social, economic, and cultural effects. Students could compare the definitions/views/experiences of Native Virginians in this time period to the treatment of African Americans in the Civil Rights movement of the 1950s/60s, the recent migrants during the time of the Alien and Sedition Acts, issues of racial identity and "Americanness" in Ozawa v. United States, United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind, and current immigration trends.
When Winners Write History
High
I think it would be interesting to have students go through some primary source materials about the Native Americans from the European perspective. We can use it to lead a discussion about the weaknesses of primary source materials. What were the biases of the Europeans coming in? How does that influence the way they wrote about the Native People?
Native Peoples
High
Native populations had a larger impact on colonist than I previously believed. What i find more interesting and will incorporate is the continued living of Native Americans throughout US history along side slave/freded and European peoples. Most often history neglects Native American populations with the beginning of the Revolutionary War.
What's in my yehakin?
Elementary
Students will create a yehakin and the items to put inside that the Native Americans would need to survive. Students will then research one of the three language groups in Virginia and tell about their way of life.
Applying Lessons Learned
High
Emphasize the role of Native Virginians throughout US history. Begin with the history of Native Virginians before colonization and incorporate a check-in on how Native Virginians adapted to the growth of the United States throughout the nations history. Incorporate current issues such as pipelines and Mount Rushmore into lessons.
Explaining the role of Virginia's Native Indians to Virginia and U.S. History
High
I would provide primary artifacts and primary/ secondary documents to groups of students students. I would ask these groups to examine these features of Virginian History to show the similarities and differences in each group's culture. Further, I would have them examine the influences each culture has had on the other and how, together, both have contributed to our combined history and culture.
Teacher's Reflections on Native People
Middle
I thought about having pictures of artifacts from each tribe we study and use some primary written accounts for student to explore and learn about tribes in small groups before whole group instruction on the tribes so that students can share their discoveries.
20th Century Discrimination of Native Americans in Virginia
High
I think my students will be shocked to learn about the 1924 Virginia Racial Integrity Act and the idea that government officials promoted the idea that due to biological differences there were two races: white and "colored". Appalling. in addition, the fact that Native Americans in Virginia did not have access to a high school education until 1963 will astound them. Students will read primary source documents produced by the Virginia state government and Native American perspectives through letters, photos, interviews, etc. Students will compare these events to the Civil Rights Movement and other instances of discrimination we have studied.
Native Peoples
High
I already have native american history in my first unit, but I will be making more of an effort to include a Pre-Colonist period to start out the Conquest and colonization of America unit I do for US History. This can include primary and secondary sources and would be a good introduction about looking at history. I would use examples like the ones shown in this lesson as well as adding photos of other objects. I particularly like the Opechancanough story as I also share it with my students. Giving them the opportunity to create their own narratives would allow them to think differently about the history they know versus what could have happened. Since we will most likely be online I want to have the students do a discussion board where they create the story around the attack by Opechancanough. Students will have to give 3 different reasons behind why he did it or why he may not do it and the result they think fits best.
Native Peoples in Virginia
Elementary
Teaching 5th grade requires me to teach about 5 groups of Native Americans living throughout the United States. I would take the information students were taught in 4th grade (Virginia Studies in Stafford) and have them make comparisons to the 5 groups of Native Americans in 5th grade. Incorporation of a K-W-L model would help in this instruction and comparisons.
VA Native Peoples
Elementary
I would begin the unit on native peoples with a KWL chart to evaluate what students may already know. How were they given the name "Indians"? The students would complete an artifact activity in coop-learning groups and using their historical thinking skills be able to answer questions such as: Where was it found?, Where is it now?, How did it get here?, etc. Students could also work together to research our language now and vocabulary that may have originated as an American Indian language - while building their writing and creative storyboards. I would definitely want to incorporate discussion on the segregation of American Indians and how they were affected by the Racial Integrity Act. Compare and contrast early native peoples to American Indians today. Have students observe pow-wows, dancing, and storytelling - plus have an American Indian come in as a "teacher" to speak to the students in more detail about their heritage.
Learning About Virginia's Native Peoples
Elementary
I will continue to use strategies and methods I have used in the past such as flash cards, SOL Pass study guides, and power point presentations that go along with VS.2d-g. I have also used “foldable” activities to show how the Native Americans interacted with their environment during the four seasons to meet their basic needs. I found numerous instructional resources at the VA Department of Education (VDOE), particularly the VA Indian Archive from the VA Foundation for the Humanities. It is a collection of various resources representing their history and culture. I can apply what I am learning by finding materials appropriate for fourth grade that will promote a better understanding of the role of Native Americans (Indians) in Virginia’s history. There are other primary sources available from the Jamestown/Yorktown foundation. In the past we have had presenters come talk to our fourth graders. They would bring artifacts (tools, clothing, images) and students had “hands-on” learning experiences. I would also look into contacting actual descendants of Native Americans who could give information about their culture and history.
Native American Tribes of Virginia
Elementary
As a fifth grade teacher, we focus on five tribes that lived outside of Virginia. However, I love all of the info I learned from these readings. I will use this information to compare and contrast the lives of Virginia Indians to the others we study.
Collaboration for Positive Outcomes
Middle
I would have students make a list of who they would like to work with in small groups of four or five and why they want to work together. I will take those lists and intentionally not put them all together with their choice. They will be given a group assignment and will have to collaborate in order for all of the students of the group to be successful. I expect some difficult issues will arise between them as they try to work together or maybe even refuse to work together. Near the end of class, I will have them fill out a survey on how they believe their group succeeded or did not' succeed in the assignment. I would like them to state reasons why it did or didn't work. I will also ask them to brainstorm how they could have done things differently when they approached part of an assignment they disagreed upon. After reading over their responses, I would like to share them without the names and see if they, as a class, can come up with ways of working together in the future, even if they have differences with some students. The objective would be to discover that everyone has strengths and weaknesses and pooling together the strengths of each student in a group can help them succeed in a common goal and work peacefully together. We will then discuss the encounters of the Native Americans and Europeans in the early stages of their meetings and how they admired certain aspects that the other had. We will discuss also throughout the unit how relationships may have broken down through time. We can look at the reasons why and how the Europeans and Native Americans tried to come to peaceful means, but it didn't always work.
Native Virginians
Elementary
Fourth grade Virginia SOLs emphasize the relationship of the physical geography of Virginia on the lives of its native peoples. I would have students analyze maps of Virginia along with the locations of Native Virginian tribes and have them draw conclusions about relationships between the natural resources that were available and the way the Native Virginians made use of them. They could also examine artifacts and other archeological evidence to make inferences about how they were constructed and used.
Native People in Virginia
Elementary
It is valuable to study the Native People from the past. We need to consider the influences brought to them such as artifacts from the settlers and how it changed the way Native People lived and interacted with the environment. As with any culture, when new materials are introduced that are not raw materials from the region, it allows for change. The change can be positive or adverse.
Beyond the European Perspective
Elementary
1) I really want to use artifacts more in the classroom. Whether it be pictures of artificts or videos. I don't think that my students fully understood the importance of these artifacts. I am sad to say that I just presented that as a fact to my students rather than a practice. I would like to spend a lot of time discussing artifacts and having students answer the questions presented - What is the artifact? Where is it now and how did it get there? When was it created? What is the function of the object? Was it unique? Who made, owned, or used this object? I think if students have the opportunity to practice this consistently, they will better understand the importance of these artifacts for understanding Native American life.

2) The other focus I would like to prepare for this upcoming school year is to view European drawings, maps, and paintings. I love the idea of showing these sources, but having the students analyze the paintings with the understanding that they served a purpose. Clearly, many of the drawings/paintings were romanticized views of what the Europeans were actually doing. In particular, I found the painting of the wedding of John Rolfe and Pocahontas to be a great example of this. Students will most likely leave conversations about these pictures with more questions about the motives of the people who created them.
Native People in Virginia
Elementary
I would have students observe artifacts from the Native People. We will discuss things we notice about the artifact to help pull out what was important and what they valued the most.
4th Grade Teacher - Native Peoples
Elementary
There is a lot more than just maps, dates, and names. I will use images and videos to help students understand what their notes mean. Just looking at the picture of the moccasins can bring up a lot of discussion points: use of resources, trading, environment, and wildlife. I will also ask students to think about the perspective of the artwork they are looking at. I will spend more time investigating images to get students to tell me what they are seeing and how they feel when they look at the image. When students look at the engraving from 1590 they will be able to tell me that fishing was important and there was an abundance of wildlife. The image of the attack in 1622 may cause students, at first, to say that the Native Americans were savages. But, we need to ask who created that image and why. The podcast was interesting too, and I think students would benefit from listening to some of it. Students may think that Native Americans are history and this does not apply to modern times. Hearing from actual Native Americans talking about their culture would be important for students to hear.
3rd grade teacher Smyth County
Elementary
Using a knowledge of the tribe located in our area, the class would predict where said tribe would most likely have set up their village according to their specific needs. What would be the struct of government and homes alike? Museums and maps, and such would be tapped for area information. A direct line of communication with local experts would be established. Saltville-the Valley of Salt- is said the have attracted numerous people.
English 11
High
For the most part, our study of American Literature is chronological. We do usually begin with a few Native American pieces. I will try to incorporate more Native American pieces through out the year - not just at the beginning. I do try to present information from a variety of perspectives and this reminds me to continue to do that for Native Americans, particularly with the protests now when we need to be sure that all voices are heard and respected and valued in our shared literacy. People of color includes not only African Americans and Latinx but also Native Americans, Asian Americans, and Pacific Islanders.
A Look Through Time for Virginia Indians
Elementary
With the knowledge that I have learned, I would generate a large timeline to display and a timeline for the students to put into their interactive notebooks. On this timeline, I would put the dates that we are working with and their importance. After completing the timeline, we would be able to see the growth and changes that have happened.

Students love to have hands on learning. I would assign small groups and within each group the students would be assigned a specific tribe. They would have to research, with help, what the Indians ate, how they lived, what they lived in, where they traveled to, and other important facts that are detailed to that particular tribe. The students could either create a mini replica of the house that their tribe lived in using as many realistic items as possible. They could also share their findings with the rest of the class.

The students could be given a set of artifacts or photos of the artifacts and ask and answer the questions through a Q and A. Questions like: What it is? What was it used for? Who used it? Where was it used? Where did it come from? What are some other things that we think of or tell us about the tribe? Who made it?

With the perspective of much of the written documents coming from European settlers, we could create a set up to look at the perspective from the Indians through showing of videos or traveling to places that remain close to the same as it did when the Native Americans lived there full time. The students always love a hands-on experience. Getting to touch items can change their perspectives too.
Native Peoples of Virginia
Elementary
I love the idea of using pictures and artifacts to teach students about a group of people. One activity I would do is to have the students use the information that they learned from a picture like the moccasins and conduct an Native American Artifact interview. Students would research the artifact and share their findings in a question and answer session. They could use an app like Chatterpix to make the artifact talk.
Native Americans in Virginia Studies
Elementary
In Virginia Studies, learning the state-recognized Native American tribes and the relationship that they had with the colonists are extremely important standards. When many of my students think about Native Americans, they imagine chiefly the Cherokee tribe due to our proximity to Cherokee, North Carolina. When I was a child, I grew up in King William County and had the opportunity to know people who were of Pamunkey and Mattaponi descent. We visited the Pamunkey Museum and Cultural Center on field trips. I would like to take my students to the cultural center as part of our field trip for Virginia Studies if we are permitted to go at some point this year. I would like to some experts talk to them via Zoom or Google Meets if we cannot see sites in person. We made pottery in the Pamunkey style in Art class when we were students as well. I would like to meet with our Art teacher to see if he would be interested in this project.
I think that it would be beneficial if students learned about the Native Americans in cooperative learning groups where each group became "experts" on their assigned tribe. They could present their findings to the class. As a part of the standards, they have to learn about language groups. Their presentation could include a tribe's housing, farming techniques, location in the state, and language spoken. I could create a web quest to help them to learn to locate information online.
Native Virginians
High
I would like to teach a lesson that compares and contrasts the traditional views of interactions with Virginia Indians to the modern (more accurrate) history. It would be interesting to conduct the lesson in a K-W-L method. Most students have never heard of the 1924 Racial Integrity law or the 1622-1632 offensive against the Virginia Indians.
Artifact Stories
Middle
Task the students with writing a story to explain the importance and/or history of an artifact presented to the class. Students will discuss what they think. Then the history of the artifact will be provided to the students. They will then compare their first thoughts with the story provided and weigh their assumptions.
Native Peoples in Virginia
Middle
I would like to use this information in my classroom by setting up artifact stations. I would use artifacts to show how Virginia changed over time from before European involvement to present day. I would have students analyze the artifacts and have them think from the perspectives of the Native Americans AND the Europeans, and later the American people. Students could reflect on the artifacts provided, create a timeline showing Native American involvement and treatment over the last 400 or years.
Native Peoples
High
I will use primary sources and artifacts from both European and Native Virginian viewpoints to provide perspective and balance. I will incorporate maps and showing early Native Virginian settlements and maps of Native Virginian tribes that are recognized today. My class will analyze the Treaty from Bacon's Rebellion and the 1924 Race law that listed all Native Virginians as colored and assess the impact of these laws on Native Virginian culture. Research will be done on the local Nansemond tribe (located in my city) and students will be encouraged to attend their annual celebration.
Not enough
High
I did enjoy some of the materials in this unit; however, I'm a little disappointed by the lack of any focus on the Native Americans living in Virginia today. The fact remains that this group is the poorest minority in America today, with the shortest life expectancy, and we as a state do very little to make it better. Beginning to provide a high school education in the 60's is where the conversation here ends, but the injustices persist, and ought to be rectified.
Native Peoples In Virginia
Elementary
This information gives me a great opportunity to have students analyze primary source documents created by Europeans about the Native Americans. Students could determine what was the purpose of certain primary source documents. (ex. persuade, inform), who was the intended audience. Students could also ask valid questions as to who would profit from the intentions portrayed by the documents and why was it necessary to do so? It would also be a great opportunity to research and discuss the Racial Integrity Act of 1924 in prospective to American Indians and African Americans. Students also could compare and contrast how this Act affected African American versus American Indians.
Bias Training
Elementary
In our current political and cultural climate, I think it is fitting to help train students to recognize bias towards Native Americans especially in the use fo primary source documents that have been primarily written from the European perspective. I hope to begin a unit by examing the archaeological artifacts of Native Americans to encourage student to determine what it is, when it was created, what was it used for, and who made it. I want students to begin to think from the perspective of Natives and their interactions with the land. As we move forward I would want students to see that there is very little primary source material related to Natives and begin to question why. As they begin to recognize what material is available, I'd want them to think and ask about the perspective it was written from, to begin to question the biases of European source materials as they are examined. I want students to walk away knowing that Native Americans were often mistreated, abused, and discriminated against because of their skin color and cultural traditions which is wrong and be able to relate to those experiences to those of the political and culrtual climate of our day.
Native Peoples in Virginia.
Middle
I will try to emphasize how socially developed the Native Peoples were. It was not Europeans who brought sophisticated political and social systems. The Native had religious leaders and beliefs.
There was a social structure, much like the European immigrants with the males and females.
The Natives came here much like the Europeans did, looking for a better life.
There are few, if any, primary sources for the Natives history. The accounts were often biased by European immigrants.
Natives were killed by epidemics "white man" diseases, warfare, and attempts by the immigrants to remove them from their lands.
Natives have not received equal treatment for many years.
Native People
Elementary
My students would become “experts” on a particular Indian tribe by reading and writing in response to what they read. Working in pairs, they would answer the 5 “w” questions: who, what, where, when, and why as it relates to their Indian tribe.
Virginia Racism is it more than Black and White?
High
Class group project associated with the reading and study of primary source documents passed by the Virginia General Assembly throughout our states history dealing with race and the separation of people based on race and color.
Native Ways
High
I think I would break my class up into eight groups. Each group would research one of the tribes native to Virginia. Each group would be restricted to using only primary sources, including objects and historical treaties to “teach” us about their tribe. Then each group would report what we could learn from these long ago people by explaining how reciprocity worked, communal cooperative leadership, and sustainability . Students would then be challenged to explain how the Native relationship with nature could be emulated in today’s world to help our environment..
Music Education
High
The music of Native American populations is some of the earliest known in the Western hemisphere. Many of the instruments that they used back then were made from bone and wood. These simple designs were eventually transformed into instruments that we know of today. Understanding Native American music and instruments, is a gateway to better understanding the music the influence that we see in today's classical music as well as instrumentation.
Lets Talk!
Middle
I would live to invite a couple of chiefs in to hold a discussion with my students about
the past and issues like the proclamation of the king, treaties with the US government, the Indian Removal Act, reclassification of their race, discrimination, schooling, serving their country and more. I would also like to here stories passed down from their elders.
Native Artifact Exploration
High
I have covered the myths and saying of the Native Populations throughout the United States, but I will develop a lesson similar to this one. Start with an artifact, have them discuss their ideas in small groups, then have them put their hypothesis on large index cards, then tape them next to the artifact. Then in folders, give them access to the other materials, giving them time to explore them. Their teams would need to write an explanation of how all these items work together to tell the story of the Native Populations. They would then need to add a question that they could not find the answer to with the resources that they were provided.
Native Indians in Virginia History
High
I would incorporate a lesson on the relationship of early Indian tribes and Europeans not just in the 16th or 17th century but also how these tribes were able to survive and what their conditions were like into contemporary times. Questions like? Did Native Americans have voting rights? Why were they lumped into other minority groups? I think it is important not only to introduce early history , but how has the Native Americans emerged in Virginia Political, Economically and Socially.
American Indian History in the Middle School Classroom
Middle
In the U.S. II Standards, USII.4a states that students should examine the reasons for westward expansion, including its impact on American Indians. Though this standard doesn't have much to do with Native Peoples in Virginia, I would teach the connection between their experience, and that of the Plains Indians. The pattern of broken treaties, assimilation, and annihilation was there from the beginning.
Native Peoples in the 4th grade classroom.
Elementary
In Virginia Studies our American Indian units spans multiple weeks and we discuss and learn about many aspects of the American Indians (Eastern Woodland Indians) that lived in our state. We examine their adaptations for food and shelter, their interactions with the English settlers and we compare and contrast the story of John Smith's life being saved by a certain Indian Princess. After completing this module I am looking forward to this unit in the coming school year. I now know how primary sources can enrich the background of the American Indians we will be learning about. As a class we can examine engravings or prints of different perspectives of the American Indians lives, we can look at artifacts (arrowheads or pottery) and understand the day to day life of the people we are studying. We will examine how American Indians live today and how they continue to share their culture with the world through powwows, dancing, storytelling, and music.
Civil Rights
High
There is a focus on the push for civil rights and equal treatment by Native Americans (i.e. AIM) within that unit, but providing the perspective to what has occurred within Virginia could bring home the issue a bit more. This would encompass an examination on the impact of the Racial Integrity Act, the effect of not being able to access education, and the importance of formal recognition. While the settlement period is not within my curriculum, it would be an intriguing activity for students to examine primary sources from the colonists and to decipher the perspective presented and the purpose behind printing the source.
Virginia Natives
High
I will teach students to examine photos, artifacts, and other primary sources such as legal documents to understand life before and after the arrival of the English. I want them to ask historical questions and analyze on their own how clothing, farming, relationships with other tribes and the English changed over time.
Teacher
High
I think it is important to talk about the entire history of Native Peoples in VA. We need to go further than just Jamestown and Pocahontas. The full scope of what Native Peoples in VA had to endure should be emphasized in our teaching. A lot of the time we tend to think that the massive casualties from disease and colonization that the Natives endured was centered in Mexico, Peru, and the American Southwest, but not here. The story of VA is not complete without a honest discussion of how Native Peoples were treated here.
Native American Perspective
Elementary
I found Powhatan's perspective about the colonists to be very interesting, I had not considered that he wanted incorporate them into his sphere of power. To apply this in the classroom I would help students consider many perspectives when we are studying history. My experience when being taught social studies and I am embarrassed to say, when I have taught social studies, has been from one primary angle- that of the colonists or Americans. This module has helped me to understand that we can learn a lot from having students consider history from multiple perspectives.
Analyze tools and artifacts
High
I will try to get artifacts and tools that the Native Peoples used and have the students analyze them and get them to make their own inferences and hypotheses about what they are and what they were used for.
CAROLYNH
Elementary
After learning about Native People in Virginia I will be able to provide more information to my students when we learn about Pocahontas and Chief Powhatan. This information will enhance and deepen our understanding of Native Virginians and their contributions to the Commonwealth.
Virginia Indians
Elementary
In studying this topic I will now be able to include primary source material and show the Indian side of things that were going on during colonization. Never before was it explained to me how discriminated against these people actually happened. I will present a much truer picture to my students of the obstacles they had to overcome, especially in education and keeping their heritage.
Native Peoples Differences
Elementary
I teach 5th grade Social Studies, so we learn about 5 different groups that live in North America. I have my students work in groups to create posters that describe their group's geographic location, cultural traditions, climate, and types of home. They are free to use materials to make any aspect 3-D. Students have used tiolet paper rolls to make Toetum poles, popsicle stick and fabric to make Longhouses, and pretzels and tortilla shells to make tepees. Their creativity has helped to support thier learning.
Vital contributions of Natie Americans
Middle
The important contributions should be listed and remembered. The life style shows a simplification of life in an agricultural setting in Virginia. The tribes offering differences yet similarities in lifestyle. The roles of each person being important for the whole. We need to also highlight the fact that the Native Americans served and supported the settlers in the conflicts and wars. I feel personally we have always shown Native Americans as a primitive and barbaric peoples who always were in conflict with the settlers. The fact that they were forced to accept and practice more European ways was a downfall of their individuality and tribe traditions. Showing both sides to my students should allow them a more just and honorable memory. Having students pick one of our tribes and research and complete a diorama of the living style.
Vital contributions of Natie Americans
Middle
The important contributions should be listed and remembered. The life style shows a simplification of life in an agricultural setting in Virginia. The tribes offering differences yet similarities in lifestyle. The roles of each person being important for the whole. We need to also highlight the fact that the Native Americans served and supported the settlers in the conflicts and wars. I feel personally we have always shown Native Americans as a primitive and barbaric peoples who always were in conflict with the settlers.
Virginia Indians
Elementary
In studying this topic I will now be able to include primary source material and show the Indian side of things that were going on during colonization. Never before was it explained to me how discriminated against these people actually happened. I will present a much truer picture to my students of the obstacles they had to overcome, especially in education and keeping their heritage.
Cockacoeske
Elementary
Using the picture from the Virginia Women's Monument Commission's site, I would give her picture with her name, birth and death dates and that she is of the Pamunkey tribe. I would explain that this figure as well as 6 others were memorialized in bronze dedicated on 10/14. I would ask that the students analyze the picture and answer the following questions:
1. What role do you believe this person has?
2. What makes you believe this?
3. Why do you think that this person is as important today as they were during their lifetime?
Then I would give them the picture of the frontlet to examine and ask
1. Why is the frontlet important
2. How did Cockacoeske come into possession of it?
3. What does it symbolize to the Pamunkey
Lastly, them to look at their initial thoughts about
Cockacoeske and ask if there are any
Then I would give students an opportunity to do a web search to uncover more about Cockasocoeske and review their answers to see what we learn from the Indian people and why she is still influential today.
Learn about your own state
High
I think that we are so fortunate to live in a state rich in history of different cultures. I would want my students to take the 8 VA tribes and research their impact on what our state has become.
Special Education Teacher
Elementary
I will incorporate Native Peoples in Virginia in my lesson by generating discussion through Indian artifact pictures. I will search for videos that feature Native peoples and their point of view. I will highlight concentrated efforts made by the US government to destroy Indian population and influence in America.
Artifacts and more artifacts
Elementary
There would be a bunch of photos and objects for students to look at. They could work in groups and rotate between them. They would need to write down their thinking with the starters “I notice, I wander” or answer the who, what, where, when, and how. After they have been to each center we would come together and discuss. Then as I teach the rest of the unit we could revisit the discussed artifacts again.
Native Americans in Virginia
High
Re-imagining essentially the jump off point of VA US History with the Native American interpretation of VA US would be beneficial. Seeing the correlation between indigenous people, and how struggles in the US can correlate later to the South. The decisions that they make play a role in the legacy of Natives in the US. Just as poverty was in the South for a century after the Civil War, we can see the fall out of Native Americans, and the hardships that they faced as well. Such as winning court cases vs the US, but Andrew Jackson not enforcing the ruling. I can see the correlation between African Americans and their struggles throughout early US History. This would be a good transition.
Let's go to a Powwow
Elementary
I would love to be able to take my students on a field trip to a Powwow. At the Powwow they would be able to experience first hand their music, clothing, materials they used for tools, how they lived in the past and how they choose to live today. But for now I show them the Virginia Trekkers podcast of a Powwow.
Native Peoples
Elementary
Firstly, I'd like to know if it's eight or eleven recognized tribes. We used to teach eleven, and now they simply need to know where the Monacan are located and that the rest of the recognized tribes are in the Coastal Plain region. I would like to have a tribal leader come and talk to the class about the traditions of their people, the history that goes along with their tribe, and how the native peoples have influenced the state of Virginia. I feel it would be benefit students to see the point of view from those who became 'the occupied' and hear history from them.
Interactions between Natives and European colonists
Elementary
I would do an artifact investigation with my class where I would pull various photos and objects for them to complete an "I notice/I wonder" thinking. Students will be placed in groups where they can rotate to each object (beads, photos, arrowheads) to complete this activity. This would be a great hook into the unit on Native Americans. After they complete the "I notice/I wonder" we can debrief. Later in the unit, we will revisit these artifacts but now how did these artifacts impact the interactions between native americans and European colonists?
Artifacts
Elementary
After reading the information in this module, I realized that I need to use more artifacts in my classroom to give my students a better sense of the topic that we are studying, whether it is Native Americans or World War I. Primary sources such as documents, photographs, diaries, letters, etc. are great, but an actual artifact almost begs students to touch it, hold it, and use it.
Native Peoples
Adult Education
Point of view should be the guiding force of all history lessons. I know that I try to incorporate different viewpoints when teaching history. I try to look at class and consider women and minority points of view. As teachers, we don't want to "forget" or leave out valuable components of the framework of history. Knowing that historians and anthropologists don't have a great deal of textual sources to use when studying Native Indians . . . hopefully, that will guide me to seek out and use unique and thought provoking primary sources when we study Native Peoples in the classroom.
Native Peoples
Elementary
I will spend more time recognizing the INdians and their contributions before and after the British got here. I will spend time recognizing their contributions to our new British culture and ultimately our current day culture.
Native Americans: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly
Elementary
Having been fascinated by Native American life since I was an elementary age child myself, I have always looked at them as an amazing culture. This is the good. There use of the land and survival skills with hunting, gathering, and farming was unsurpassed by any culture in my eyes. This lesson has heightened my awareness and made me believe even more how correct I was. In my classroom I always try to convey this excitement as we learn about Native Americans in second grade.
However, this unit has made me realize that my students need to see the bad side as well. Like many teachers before me and some of my own, we sometimes gloss over the hardships and discrimination that was created as early as the first English settlers arriving in North America. As students learn later on about Civil Rights, and Rosa Parks as well as Martin Luther King, Jr., they need to know that racism has been around for centuries and we are still addressing it today. Segregation and discrimination was not directed at merely one race, but at any race other than European settlers.
Now to address the ugly part. Life is not all sunshine and rainbows and our students need to hear and see this in real time. This is a lesson that needs to be addressed, taught, taught, and discussed. How could their generation change things? What are their thoughts and feelings about the treatment of the Native Americans or African Americans or even immigrants today as they attempt to start a better life for themselves? Is history not repeating itself?
Native Virginians
High
I generally teach 9th grade world history so this was a such an interesting module to me. I found some great online resources, such as the National Museum of the Native American. Library of Congress and several university databases. If I had the opportunity to teach about, or incorporate, Native Virginias, I would start by asking students what they already know about these people. Then I would compare historical and contemporary maps of the eight designated tribes in Virginia today, looking at territories, resources, and/or anything else students might notice. I would have groups of students use primary sources, like the ones in this module, comparing the Native Virginian's life before and after contact with the colonists, as well as the long lasting consequences of European colonization on the Native Virginians (assimilation, reservations, etc.). Since I'm so close to the National Museum of the Native American I would definitely plan a field trip to bring the unit/lesson to life.
A Week in the Life of an American Indian
Elementary
Students will delve into the lives of Native Americans via 5 days of hands-on activities.
Day 1: Using the site:https://nativeamericans.mrdonn.org/comparison.html , students as a class will watch and discuss, in general, the early Native Americans who encountered the Europeans. During writing workshop, students will discuss what they think they would have felt like if they were there and create a WORDLE to post on the classroom wall. Using a computer, they will use WORD to describe what they would have seen, what they would have felt, and what they think they would have done.

Day 2: Students will review their Wordle from yesterday.

Using the site: https://nativeamericans.mrdonn.org/southeast.html, students will view more information on Woodland Indians.

Students will learn to play the Hoop and Dart game

Day Three: Students will learn about the stories Woodland Indian children were told:
https://nativeamericans.mrdonn.org/stories/wiseowl.html. Students will pair up to draft their own Woodland Indian story using StoryBird.

Day Four: Students will learn about Woodland Indian Homesteads. Students will create with clay a typical Woodland Indian pot.
Students will watch the creation of tools from stone: www.nativetech.org/scenes/stonetools.html

Day Five: Students will go on a field trip to the Native American Museum in Washington, D.C. Upon returning, students will write a paragraph about whether or not they would have liked to be an Indian child at that time.



Monday - Wednesday: Students (1/2 of class) will work in a group to write a short story about a Native American family who lived at the time when the Europeans arrived. The other half of students will write a short story of Native Americans in the 1900s.

Wednesday - Thursday: Students will choose one aspect of Indian culture and re-create it using a variety of provided objects.

Friday: Students will eat a meal similar to that of a typical American Indian in the 1800s after creating one of a variety of available crafts based on Indian originals (Example: booties, purses, agricultural tools, etc.)
Are We All Equal?
Middle
Research the early classification of Native Americans in Va. Who determined the roles in society they would have accordingly? How did classifying these peoples as “colored” affect their lives? How could Native Americans attain a higher education.... more than just a 7th grade?
Woodrow Wilson Middle School Roanoke City
Middle
I would try and find primary documents on African Americans and Native Americans and compare/contrast how these two groups suffered and endured discrimination in many ways.
Topics such as education, citizenship, marriages, voting rights, etc could be researched and presented in class. Students could analyze the information through documents and create timelines to illustrate the similarities and differences.
Native Peoples in Virginia
Elementary
Teaching my students the history of Native Peoples in Virginia is important because it has helped survival up to this point. A lot of the skills and trades that the colonists used to survive were learned from Native Indians. It is also important to have students understand that the Native Peoples were here much longer, even though their is no "proof" since they did not keep track of that information like the European Colonists did.
Virginia Native American History
Middle
I would gather several photographs of Native American tools, clothing, and shelters of the Native Virginian tribes. Students would be paired up and be given the task of brainstorming what the photographs tell them about Native Americans lifestyle, culture, and history in the Virginia region.
Native Americans in the Classroom
Elementary
There is a video on Social Studies weekly that talks about the Pueblo Indians. In my previous example we talked about the geography of where they lived. Using this video we can talk about the homes and the artifacts that have been found. Why do we think they built their homes in cliffs? Why was their pottery so important? So many questions and inferences can be made from watching the video. I believe young children really need to see and touch things to learn. Talking about Native Americans is exciting, but watching videos or maybe a field trip to a museum will make things very real for them and better understand the past. This in turn will lead to historical thinking and really expand their learning.
7th grade Native peoples
Middle
Teaching about the "Jim Crow" South is an important part of Middle School History. Learning what I have learned today, I will add an aspect of Native American assimilation to this unit. I will discuss the law passed in 1924 and how it impacted the Native Americans living in Virginia. I could also add a section to our Civil War unit and discuss how Native Americans had a difficult decision in choosing who to fight for or to not fight at all.
Native Americans
Elementary
I think students could go to Jamestown for a field trip to see the English settlers as well as learn about native Americans. Students could then build a Native American village using different materials available from cloth, sticks, moss, and other materials to construct a village and then they could share their project with the class.
4th Grade Teacher
Elementary
Showing the students artifacts, whether they are physical objects or pictures of objects, gives the students a real-life example of something that a Native American developed hundreds of years ago. This serves as an important example of where we, as Virginians, started from and the advancements that have been made over time. It starts discussions about physical features like: What materials were needed to create these objects? Where were the materials found? How were these items made? It would also open doors to many comparing/contrasting conversations, such as: How could you make them today? What would you use instead and why? This discussion would allow the students to think historically about what resources the Native Americans had access to and also consider what we can utilize today. By empowering them with utilizing their prior knowledge, they are more likely to engage in these conversations and be more self-motivated in their learning.
Indian Tribes and Customs
Elementary
I will give my students a list of the 8 Native American tribes recognized today and have them research information on the tribes (customs, food, etc.) I will provide a guideline for the research project (possibly make it a group project).
Teacher
High
I would really like to incorporate the idea of having students try to see the Europeans' arrival from the Natives' point of view: Powhatan wondering how he could take THEM over and get some of the unique commodities they brought. Ask them what items they think Powhatan's tribes would be interested in and why. Even to ask them how the 17th century Natives might have viewed the 19th century painting of Pocahontas's wedding to John Rolfe. They could really exercise some powerful critical thinking: Point of view, bias, change over time and place; the list goes on.

I think another great way to incorporate the lessons in this module would be including a small bit about their role in the Civil War; I honestly never knew or even thought about the fact that they had a vested interest in that war. It would also be pretty cool to include them in lessons about segregation. I think most kids only think African Americans were segregated; it would be interesting to see what they think about the segregation of Native Americans. Would they move away from their homes and families to get an education beyond seventh grade?

Native Virginians
Middle
I teach about the English Colonies and Jamestown, and the Powhatan and John Smith, to my 6th grade students. From this module, I am taking away the importance of teaching how very many tribal peoples were already on this land and how contact with the English in the 17th century led to widespread elimination of these people, and over time, only 9 tribes are still recognized as original Virginia tribes. When I usually teach about Native tribes and white contact, it is in my 7th history curriculum in the 19th century when whites are moving westward and railroads are killing buffalo. Though I knew there was Indian-European conflict from the beginning, I do not typically teach students about the massacres by both the English and the Powhatan or how Chief Powhatan saw the benefit of working with the English based on their "prestige goods." There are many new facts of the Native-English interaction in Virginia that I will add to my curriculum.
American Indian
Elementary
I think the American Indian perspective is something that needs to be seriously addressed. When I teach Virginia' Indians unit I try hard to emphasize the gravity of the topic. I try to get my student to imagine a thriving civilization essentially- disappearing. It is incredibly disheartening to think that within less than 400 years the Euro-American culture has completely dominated not only the environment but the culture of America. I look forward to working on integrating more of an inquiry-based approach to teaching about the American Indians.
American Indians of Virginia
Middle
I found this module very interesting. I would definitely make sure to find resources that give both sides of the story of the American Indians and Euro- Americans. The stories are what draw the students in and adding some of the material that I have learned from this module will make the learning more exciting and fascinating to my students! The Connections Essay was spot on.I have always taught about the Bering Strait as being how we got here but now there are new theories. People don't tend to think about other races after war times now I can give them the details about the Racial Integrity Act of 1924 and how education was denied to American Indians until 1963.
Applying Native American History
Elementary
I believe I have actually done a very good job at integrating Native American history into my Virginia Studies lessons. I have used a lot of primary sources , maps, and accounts integrated into every lesson about the roles of Virginians during different time periods. Through this module I have found some additional primary source ideas that I will use, especially during my next VS.9 unit which will be about the changed in the 20th century.
Native Virginians and Geography
Elementary
I loved reading the connections essay and find it is so important to examine the various tribes native to Virginia. I would like to have the students pick two different tribes from Virginia and compare and contrast how they are different and examine what about the land may have contributed to these differences and similarities. I also like the idea of choosing an artifact and without much background information, try to determine how and why the Native Americans used it, similar to the moccasin question presented to us.
Native Americans and Virginia geography
Elementary
Anonymous (not verified)
I loved reading the connections essay and find it is so important to examine the various tribes native to Virginia. I would like to have the students pick two different tribes from Virginia and compare and contrast how they are different and examine what about the land may have contributed to these differences and similarities. I also like the idea of choosing an artifact and without much background information, try to determine how and why the Native Americans used it, similar to the moccasin question presented to us.
Native society comparison
Middle
I could develop a comparison activity in Civics between native societies and historical and/or modern societies in Virginia. Students could do a reading on how the Powhatans structured their government and society and then compare it to how the English settlers established their government. This could be used as a vehicle to explain interactions and conflict between the two sides. In addition, current government policies in Virginia regarding the recognition of native tribes could be examined as an open ended question, with students asked to consider how a tribe might get official recognition and why not all tribes may be recognized.
8th Grade World Connections Instructor
Middle
I found the Connections Essay to probably be the best comprehensive, yet succinct, summary of Native Americans/Virginians I've ever read! I found the first paragraph to be fascinating, particularly the fact that "scientists no longer agree about when and how people entered the Western Hemisphere." You grow up hearing one main theory and "running with it," just to find that there's "more to the story!" No real surprise, but it's cool to see how we keep finding new evidence -- whether it's archeological or via DNA testing.
I also liked the varying artwork from the time period throughout this module. I'm a firm believer in the old adage: "a picture's worth a thousand words." That is why my classroom is filled with images and artifacts from all over the world. I'm proud of the fact that my classroom is known as a museum, as that's the effect I want to have as soon as you get to my door.
Finally, I've found that if I can have an actual arrowhead or piece of pottery to show students, maybe even pass around, it helps "draw them into the story." Then, I can incorporate video segments, Native American music samples, etc. to augment the tale(s) of the indigenous people who were here first!
Test
Elementary
Test
Native Peoples in Virginia
Middle
We are so fortunate to live in an area where the study of Native Americans is so prevalent. Our students can use the DBQ format to better learn about the relationship between the earliest settlers and the effects of their expansion across Virginia. One of our units of study in our school is to use John White's prints to determine how early people lived, what items they may have traded with the earliest settlers, and what impact the engravings had on the English's idea of what the New World was like. From guided questioning, the students determine these answers and create an advertisement that would have been appropriate for encouraging settlement in Virginia.
Applying Information about Native Peoples
Elementary
I found Powhatan's perspective about the colonists to be very interesting, I had not considered that he wanted to make them part of his collection of tribes and a part of his empire. To apply this in the classroom I would help students consider many perspectives when we are studying history. My experience when being taught social studies and I am embarrassed to say, when I have taught social studies, has been from one primary angle- that of the colonists or Americans. This module has helped me to understand that we need to present more than one side of history.
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Comments

I love some of the ideas about combining pictures of American Indian artifacts with the use of the model we learned. Allowing students to investigate and make hypothesis on Indian lifestyle allows them to make connections they will remember as we move through the unit and progress through the standards.

This sounds like an awesome idea. I did not even think about having them look at objects of Native culture(s) and having them make hypotheses about them.

I like your ideas for studying Cockacoeske- that there were such powerful matriarchal figures that existed.

I was shocked to read about the horrendous treatment of Virginia's native peoples. I knew there had been injustices done to them, but I never knew the severity and extent of their unfair treatment. It truly saddens me that any group would be treated so inhumanely.

I love the idea of allowing students to explore the differing "ruling" or government practices of American Indians in VA. In reading the module I couldn't help but make the analogy of the federal/state governments to Powhatan's leadership over smaller chiefdoms.

I noticed that many of the ideas and comments above have focused on a hands on approach by having the students be able to examine the artifacts themselves. I agree that is a useful teaching tool and could even be used to help them understand the process or archaeological research and discovery.

I agree with what others have pointed out regarding the comparison of the Civil Rights Movement with the battles Native Americans have faced for so long to be recognized by their race and receive fair treatment. With the current discussions on Civil Rights and racism, I think it would make for an enlightening lesson to analyze European resources, the Racial Integrity Act and modern stereotypes.

I love Jeanette C's questions and am going to share them with colleagues as they are a great way to get students starting to think at a deeper level about history.
What is it?
• Where is it now and how did it get there?
• When was it created?
• What was the object’s function (or functions)? Was it unique?
• Who made, owned, or used the object?

Pages

Instructions

Congratulations on completing the module! Read and comment on classmates’ ideas here. Return to My Course to move to the next module.

National Museum of the American Indian
The Smithsonian's National Museum of the American Indian features a number of student activities that incorporate native experiences into American history.

Resources on Native American History
From Teachinghistory.org, the Standford Education History Group shares resources related to Native American history.

Stereotypes in the Curriculum
Also from Teachinghistory.org, this essay summarizes the research of UC-Riverside professor John Wills into Native American stereotypes in history curriculum and what teachers can do to get students to question them.